Traffic signals are used to control traffic at intersections by guiding and regulating the flow of traffic. Drivers, cyclists, and pedestrians must obey and understand the different traffic signals.
Traffic signals can be 3 colors (red, yellow, and green) that are either flashing or steady.
We’ll go through all of the different traffic lights, rules, and meanings in this article.
Steady Traffic Signals
Red Traffic Light
A red light means that you must come to a complete stop and remain stopped until the light turns green. Never run a red traffic light, it’s very dangerous and also illegal.
In some states, you are allowed to proceed in certain circumstances. In California for example, there are two exceptions to this rule unless otherwise signed. If safe, you are allowed to:
- Turn right after coming to a complete stop, and yielding to traffic and pedestrians in your path
- Make a left turn after coming to a complete stop, but ONLY if turning from a one-way street onto another one-way street. Yield to traffic and pedestrians in your path
However, you are never allowed to turn on red if there is a ‘NO TURN ON RED’ sign.
Remember that these exceptions do not apply to all states. Make sure to check the specific rules in your state driver’s handbook.
Yellow Traffic Light
A yellow light indicates that the green light is about to end – you must stop unless unable to safely do so. Treat a yellow light as the beginning of a red light, as opposed to the end of a green light.
Green Traffic Light
A green light means ‘GO’. Yield to vehicles, cyclists, and pedestrians still in the intersection.
Always approach an intersection at a speed that allows you to slow down and stop if the light changes.
Flashing Traffic Lights
Flashing Traffic Signals are generally used to warn road users of dangerous intersections.
There are only two types of flashing lights:
- A flashing red light
- A flashing yellow light
A Flashing Red Light
Treat a red flashing light as a ‘STOP’ sign and apply the right-of-way rules.
A Flashing Yellow Light
A flashing yellow light tells you to slow down and prepare to stop. It is used to warn drivers of danger ahead (e.g. a school crossing). Yield to any vehicles, cyclists, and pedestrians in the intersection.
Traffic Signals with Arrows
A red arrow means that you must not turn in the direction of the arrow. Wait for a green signal or arrow to appear before you turn.
A yellow arrow indicates that you must stop, unless unable to safely do so (e.g. if in the intersection).
Flashing Yellow Arrow
A flashing yellow arrow means that you are allowed to turn, but must do so carefully. Oncoming traffic will face a green light and have the right-of-way. Yield to oncoming traffic and pedestrians.
A green arrow means ‘GO’. You can make a protected turn in the direction of the arrow – meaning that oncoming vehicles, cyclists, and pedestrians are stopped by red lights. Yield to vehicles, cyclists, and pedestrians still in the intersection.
What Do You Do if a Traffic Light Is Not Working?
Malfunctioning Traffic Lights
Treat an out-of-order traffic light as a 4-Way Stop sign – proceed according to the ‘right-of-way’ rules unless otherwise indicated by an officer or another authorized person.
Lane Use Control Signals
These signals are overhead lane signals used to indicate which lanes that can be used at a specific time.
- Red X – the lane is closed. You must not drive in this lane.
- Yellow X – the lane is about to close. Move away from this lane.
- Green arrow – the lane is free to use without restrictions
You will often see these lights on reversible lanes on the highway. A reversible lane may be open in one direction during morning commute, and in the other direction in the afternoon.
Where Should You Stop at Traffic Lights?
- Traffic lights with stop line or crosswalk – stop just before the stop line/crosswalk. Don’t stop too far away from the line as some signals have detectors near the line, and won’t change to a green light unless a waiting vehicle is detected
- Traffic lights without stop line or crosswalk – stop before entering the intersection